Carthage was a wealthy trading city, and its leaders were flirting with the idea of controlling Spain and Sicily, while Rome very much liked the idea of … Rome and Carthage were vying for control of the Mediterranean Sea. [173], Little has survived of Polybius's account of Hannibal's army in Italy after Cannae. The end of the war sparked a major but unsuccessful revolt within the Carthaginian Empire known as the Mercenary War. [115] Henceforth Rome considered itself the leading military power in the western Mediterranean, and increasingly the Mediterranean region as a whole. [64], All warships were equipped with rams, a triple set of 60-centimetre-wide (2 ft) bronze blades weighing up to 270 kilograms (600 lb) positioned at the waterline. They carried several javelins, which would be thrown from a distance, a short sword, and a 90-centimetre (3 ft) shield. [38][52], Quinqueremes, meaning "five-oarsmen",[53] provided the workhorses of the Roman and Carthaginian fleets throughout the Punic Wars. [36] When they did they fought as well-armoured heavy infantry armed with long thrusting spears, although they were notoriously ill-trained and ill-disciplined. [38] On occasion some of the infantry would wear captured Roman armour, especially among Hannibal's troops. Rome won all three. [222] The Roman Senate ratified a draft treaty, but due to mistrust and a surge in confidence when Hannibal arrived from Italy Carthage repudiated it. The Roman adaptation of the corvus was a continuation of this trend and compensated for their initial disadvantage in ship-manoeuvring skills. [79], Taking advantage of their naval victories the Romans launched an invasion of North Africa in 256 BC,[82] which the Carthaginians intercepted at the Battle of Cape Ecnomus off the south coast of Sicily. The Romans facing Hannibal in southern Italy tricked him into believing the whole Roman army was still in camp, while a large portion marched north and reinforced the Romans facing Hasdrubal. [220] Scipio gave battle to and destroyed two large Carthaginian armies. [71] A Carthaginian army of 50,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry and 60 elephants attempted to lift the siege in 262 BC, but was heavily defeated at the Battle of Akragas. History. There were three Punic Wars. Archimedes before being killed by the Roman soldier – copy of a Roman mosaic from the 2nd century, Roman controlled territory in Iberia 218–214, 2nd century BC marble bust, identified as the younger Scipio, now in the. [51] Many battles were decided when one side's infantry force was attacked in the flank or rear and they were partially or wholly enveloped. Whenever Carthage petitioned Rome for redress, or permission to take military action, Rome backed its ally, Masinissa, and refused. [225] Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War, the Romans had superiority in cavalry and the Carthaginians in infantry. He was defeated in the Battle of Zama in 202 BC and Carthage sued for peace. In 264 BC, war was officially declared for control of Sicily. This order was ignored by the Carthaginian senate, and so the Second Punic War began. [25] Relationships were good and the two states had several times declared their mutual friendship via formal alliances: in 509 BC, 348 BC and around 279 BC. [250] It took six days to clear the city of resistance, and on the last day Scipio agreed to accept prisoners. [221], Rome and Carthage entered into peace negotiations, and Carthage recalled Hannibal from Italy. [243] The Romans launched an assault on the walls; after confused fighting they broke into the city, but lost in the dark, withdrew. What was the result of the 3rd Punic War? [170], At the elections of 216 BC Gaius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paullus were elected as consuls; both were more aggressive-minded than Fabius. Livy gives a fuller record, but according to Goldsworthy "his reliability is often suspect", especially with regard to his descriptions of battles;[note 9] nevertheless his is the best surviving source for this part of the war. the areas won by the Romans. [49][50] Forming up in battle order was a complicated and premeditated affair, which took several hours. When the Carthaginians refused, the Third Punic War broke out. Rome and Carthage actually had a long and friendly relationship before the Punic Wars. It soon received Gallic and Ligurian reinforcements. Carthage was taken and destroyed in 146 BC, and the Carthaginian territory was made a Roman province. [235] Rome demanded that if war were to be avoided, the Carthaginians must hand over all of their armaments. [122] He campaigned successfully, initially demonstrating leniency in an attempt to woo the rebels over. [172] Hasdrubal led Carthaginian cavalry on the left wing and routed the Roman cavalry opposite, then swept around the rear of the Romans to attack the cavalry on the other wing. [158], Hannibal captured the chief city of the hostile Taurini (in the area of modern Turin) and his army routed the cavalry and light infantry of the Romans at the Battle of Ticinus in late November. This was not popular among the soldiers, the Roman public or the Roman elite, since he avoided battle while Italy was being devastated by the enemy. [182] By early 215 BC they were fielding at least 12 legions; by 214 BC, 18; and by 213 BC, 22. [216], Later the same year a mutiny broke out among Roman troops, which initially attracted support from Iberian leaders, disappointed that Roman forces had remained in the peninsula after the expulsion of the Carthaginians, but it was effectively put down by Scipio. A cavalry force of 4,000 from the other Roman army were also engaged and wiped out. [231] Masinissa's seizures of and raids into Carthaginian territory became increasingly flagrant. Although relations were generally friendly, Rome’s intervention in a dispute on the island saw them explode into conflict. By entering your details, you are agreeing to HistoryExtra terms and conditions and privacy policy. Rome won the First Punic War after 23 years of conflict and in the end replaced Carthage as the dominant naval power of the Mediterranean. The ruins of the city lie 16 kilometres (10 mi) east of modern Tunis on the North African coast. [150] An army had previously been created by the Romans to campaign in Iberia, but the Roman Senate detached one Roman and one allied legion from it to send to north Italy. [114] This new fleet effectively blockaded the Carthaginian garrisons. [58][59] In 260 BC Romans set out to construct a fleet and used a shipwrecked Carthaginian quinquereme as a blueprint for their own. Both wars ended with Roman victories; the Second when the Roman general Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal, the premier Carthaginian general of the war, at the Battle of Zama, 160 kilometres (100 mi) south west of Carthage. The main Roman camp was in a swamp, which caused an outbreak of disease during the summer. This time, Carthage was to be put down permanently. The Third Punic War was the last major armed conflict between Rome and Carthage. The Syracusan army proved no match for the Romans, and by spring 213 BC Syracuse was besieged. Punic Wars DRAFT. Some members of the city council denounced his actions and Hasdrubal had them too put to death and took control of the city. [180] Carthage's new allies felt little sense of community with Carthage, or even with each other. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. Most of his losses were among his Iberian allies. all people in carthage were murdered, the city was destroyed, the land was salted (hatred) how did the punic wars change rome. [123] To prevent this, in 240 BC Spendius tortured 700 Carthaginian prisoners to death, and henceforth the war was pursued with great brutality. The period is usually split into three distinct wars – the First Punic War was fought from 264–241 BC, the Second Punic War from 218–201 BC and the Third Punic War from 149–146 BC. In 241 BC, Carthage was at last decisively defeated in the naval Battle of the Aegates Islands, ending the First Punic War. The immense effort of repeatedly building large fleets of galleys during the war laid the foundation for Rome's maritime dominance for 600 years. At the start of the war Carthage was the dominant power of the western Mediterranean, with an extensive maritime empire; while Rome was a rapidly expanding power in Italy, with a strong army but a weak navy. [155][156] The Carthaginians reached the foot of the Alps by late autumn[152] and crossed them, surmounting the difficulties of climate, terrain[152] and the guerrilla tactics of the native tribes. During the Pyrrhic War of 280–275 BC, against a king of Epirus who alternately fought Rome in Italy and Carthage on Sicily, Carthage provided materiel to the Romans and on at least one occasion used its navy to ferry a Roman force. [202] After the second of these Syphax was pursued and taken prisoner by Masinissa at the Battle of Cirta; Masinissa then seized most of Syphax's kingdom with Roman help. [15], Other, later, ancient histories of the war exist, although often in fragmentary or summary form. [223] Hannibal was placed in command of another army, formed from his veterans from Italy and newly raised troops from Africa, but with few cavalry. The two sides' infantry fought inconclusively until the Roman cavalry returned and attacked his rear. In 146 BC the Romans stormed the city of Carthage, sacked it, slaughtered most of its population and completely demolished it. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. [188] By 207 BC Hannibal had been confined to the extreme south of Italy and many of the cities and territories which had joined the Carthaginian cause had returned to their Roman allegiance. [124][125], By early 237 BC, after numerous setbacks, the rebels were defeated and their cities brought back under Carthaginian rule. They didn't. Two of the major Samnite tribes also joined the Carthaginian cause. 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